DENVER, Colo. – On June 3, 2019, Colorado Governor Jared Polis (D) signed into law HB 1328, Duties for Landlords and Tenants Addressing the Presence of Bed Bugs in Residential Premises, a bill that positions pest management professionals as a private-sector solution for Colorado’s rampant bed bug problem, NPMA reported.
HB 1328 requires tenants to promptly notify a landlord when a lessee knows or reasonably suspects that a rented residential unit contains bed bugs. Not more than 96 hours after receiving notice, a landlord in most circumstances must hire a pest management professional to inspect and treat the dwelling unit and any contiguous dwelling units for bed bugs. Except as otherwise provided, a landlord is responsible for all costs associated with mitigating bed bugs.
The full text of HB 1328 can be found here.
It’s home improvement season and PPMA has some exciting news! PPMA has teamed up with Richard Karn – most famously known for his role as Al Borland on the hit sitcom “Home Improvement” – to talk about the importance of taking care of your home. In a short video, which was shared on social media as well as PestWorld.org, Richard offers five simple tips for homeowners on how they can pest-proof their property this time of year. Help spread the message and engage your followers by sharing the original PestWorld Facebook post and tweet from your company’s social media profiles.
MEMPHIS, Tenn. — Terminix Commercial announced that Daniel A. Baldwin, BCE, CCFS, CP-FS, will assume the company’s newly created role of director, Technical, Training, and Regulatory Services. Baldwin will lead a team of technical experts as Terminix Commercial continues to expand its capabilities to serve businesses nationwide.
“Dan’s leadership and specialized quality and operations expertise is exactly what our team needs to enhance our protection for our customers’ facilities, customers and reputations,” said Greg Rutherford, president, Terminix Commercial. “At the helm of this newly formed team, he will help our team leverage their deep experience to solve our customers’ pest and business challenges.”
Baldwin will guide Terminix Commercial customers in a wide range of functions, including pest management best practices, regulatory compliance and product innovation. By creating this new role, Terminix Commercial will provide its clients with even greater confidence that their business is protected against pest challenges that can impact their bottom line.
“We are strengthening our Terminix Commercial team to fulfill our commitment to our commercial customers to an even greater extent,” said Dominique Sauvage, Terminix Commercial senior director, Quality, Field Operations and Training. “Dan’s unique background, coupled with his experience in third-party auditing and in overseeing pest-safety issues for a nationally recognized restaurant brand, has prepared him to serve our valued commercial clients.”
Baldwin has more than 25 years of experience in professional pest management. Most recently, he served as senior scientist, Restaurant Food Safety at Taco Bell Corporate where he managed the company’s pest control and regulatory compliance efforts.
Although the IGR and auto-dissemination process “looks like science fiction, it’s proven,” says Claudio Salem, west market technical director of Rentokil North America. When a PMP treats a backyard, he or she applies an IGR (in particular pyriproxyfen) to an area commonly known for mosquito resting, Salem said. Example areas would be the bottom of a potted plant, water cans, a tire, or any area that would be protected from sunshine and wind.
Any eggs laid in this area by mosquitoes will be affected by the insect growth regulator and not develop into adults, thus terminating their life cycle. In auto-dissemination, any female mosquitoes that fly into and land in this area for egg-laying or resting will touch and contaminate their legs with the IGR. Later, when the mosquito lays eggs or rests elsewhere, that secondary area will also be contaminated with the IGR. Any eggs laid in this area will also be affected by the IGR and will not develop into adult mosquitoes.
The active ingredient in the IGR, pyriproxyfen, is moved by the mosquito effectively from one area to another, potentially affecting a new area that the PMP did not treat. “You’re letting the mosquito do the work for you,” said Tommy Powell, technical field specialist for MGK.
What helps with the effectiveness of the process is that pyriproxyfen “can work with really, really small amounts,” even just a few molecules, explains Salem.
A Case for IGRs
“Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic hormones in young insects. They disrupt how insects grow and reproduce. IGRs can control many types of insects including fleas, cockroaches, and mosquitos. Although they are rarely fatal for adult insects, they can prevent reproduction, egg-hatch, and molting from one stage to the next. Many IGR products are mixed with other insecticides that kill adult insects.” — Source: National Pesticide Information Center (http://npic.orst.edu/ingred/ptype/igr.html)
To zero in on a neighborhood mosquito problem, PCOs need to “localize the points where mosquitoes are breeding, and attack those areas with larvicides and IGRs; that’s the way it has to be done,” says Salem. Using an IGR, pyriproxyfen, is “an extremely effective mosquito control” tactic, especially when utilized in an area where water is unnaturally found, like a cemetery vase, says Craig A. Stoops, Ph.D., B.C.E., and chief science officer of Mosquito Authority in Jacksonville, Fla. The IGR stops the mosquito from moving through its life cycle, he says.
John Bell, B.C.E., regional technical manager/staff entomologist for TruGreen in Orlando, Fla., describes one challenge and caution in using IGRs, however. Since mosquito larvae are found in water, if a PMP uses an IGR that is mixed with a pyrethroid to kill larvae and adults, “you can’t apply a pyrethroid in the water.” The challenge is to stay within the label restrictions and not contaminate the water with pyrethroid products, says Bell.
A Case for Auto-dissemination
We carried out four field experiments in two areas of Rome, Italy, that are typically highly infested with Ae. albopictus. In each area we used 10 pyriproxyfen “dissemination” stations, 10 “sentinel” sites and 10 covered, control sites. The sentinel and control sites each contained 25 Ae. albopictus larvae. When a 5% pyriproxyfen powder was used to contaminate the dissemination sites, we observed significantly higher mortality at the pupal stage in the sentinel sites (50-70%) than in the controls (<2%), showing that pyriproxyfen was transferred by mosquitoes into sentinel sites and that it had a lethal effect. The results support the potential feasibility of the auto-dissemination approach to control Ae. albopictus in urban areas. — Source: Paraphrased from a study regarding the auto-dissemination approach to fight Aedes albopictus in urban areas from the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22953015)
Auto-dissemination is “something so amazing,” Salem said. The process might seem unreal because mosquitoes carry miniscule amounts of pyriproxyfen on their legs to contaminate other areas, but the product is designed to work effectively in very small amounts, says Salem. “We have research and proof that it happens,” he says. Salem explains that theses small amounts of pyriproxyfen work most effectively with Aedes mosquitoes because they are known to look for “small pots of water” rather than rivers or larger areas.
Not everyone in the pest control world is completely convinced of the effectiveness yet, but they are very hopeful. Stoops says he believes in the research and the researchers, but is anticipating seeing more field data. “It’s coming. We’ll have real-world examples,” he says.
Similarly, Bell states, “I have to be cautious as a PCO with what works in a lab to make sure it works realistically in the field.” Bell, confirms, however, that his company is testing auto-dissemination now. “The case is there enough that we’re testing it. We’re not dismissing it,” he says.
“Florida mosquitoes that can carry Zika virus and other diseases are showing resistance to pyrethroids — a common group of insecticides used to treat them — according to a new study by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists and their collaborators.” — Source: USDA Agricultural Research Service (https://www.ars.usda.gov/news-events/news/research-news/2019/mosquitoes-show-high-resistance-to-common-insecticide/)
Resistance in mosquitoes is “definitely a huge threat,” says Craig A. Stoops, Ph.D., B.C.E., and chief science officer of Mosquito Authority in Jacksonville, Fla. Although Stoops has not encountered many confirmed populations of resistant mosquitoes in the United States yet, he says, “We need to be very cognizant of [resistance], especially since we have our hands tied with the limited modes of action that we have approved for use.”
John Bell, B.C.E., regional technical manager/staff entomologist for TruGreen in Orlando, Fla., agrees. “In the grand scheme of things, down the road we could be facing some resistance issues if we don’t manage our products properly,” he said.
Causes and Concerns
“The WHO Global report on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors: 2010-2016 showed that resistance to the 4 commonly used insecticide classes — pyrethroids, organochlorines, carbamates and organophosphates — is widespread in all major malaria vectors across the WHO regions of Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Pacific.” — Source: World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/malaria/areas/vector_control/insecticide_resistance/en/)
Resistance is the ability of mosquitoes to build a tolerance to an insecticide as a result of gradual, genetic changes. In the United States in particular, “The big problem is that we have very limited modes of action [options],” as the primary insecticides approved for barrier spays are pyrethroids, says Stoops. PCOs who are finding resistance will need higher rates of the insecticide to kill the same population, without exceeding the label requirements, Bell added. Alternating to a different brand name is not the solution because the product’s chemistry will still be the same. “Even though you change to a different product, if it is still a pyrethroid, [mosquitoes] will develop resistance to that insecticide as well,” explains Bell.
“In true resistance management, you’re going to want to use a completely different class of chemical,” Stoops added.
“One of the concerns I have is that the way you build resistance is more and more exposure to lower dosages [of insecticide],” says Bell. With the mosquito control segment growing tremendously, especially in the last five years, “We have more people spraying products, which means more exposure, and if labels are not followed correctly and we accidentally spray lower rates, the chances of mosquitos adapting to those lower rates is going to grow,” Bell said.
Claudio Salem, west market technical director of Rentokil North America, was responsible for controlling mosquitoes during the 2016 Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He adds that the mosquito population, in general, is also growing. The more mosquitoes we have, the more resistance we will have, he says.
Since a mosquito has a two- to four-week life cycle, in the course of a 16-week summer, at least four life cycles of mosquitoes “can build up immunities pretty quickly if [a PCO] is doing the same thing over and over again,” explains Clark Young, owner of Bite Back Mosquito Hunters in Maple Grove, Minn. The need exists to break the cycle and introduce a different chemical, he says.
Analyzing Resistance and Finding Solutions
Before solving a resistance problem, though, the first step is to ensure that a resistance problem actually exists. When a pest control company finds a treatment failure in a local area, resistance as a cause is “probably the least likely of the possibilities,” says Stoops. Although continual callbacks might prompt the initial conclusion to be a resistance problem, Stoops explains that his company rules out any possible mistakes first to exclude the possibility of resistance. Perhaps an applicator error occurred where the proper application was not applied or a proper source reduction was not performed, he explains. Additionally, mosquito sources in a neighboring location that have not been addressed could be a cause.
Once resistance is established in one area, the assumption cannot be made that resistance will necessarily occur in a neighboring area, explains Salem. In Brazil, “We found resistant mosquitoes in one cluster, and the cluster in the neighboring county did not see resistance. So, you have to test each one of these areas,” he says, and tackle one area at a time, as a blanket solution might not be the answer. “Do not assume that because [one resistance solution] worked here, that it’s going to work there,” says Salem. As a result, observation and study of the results are key.
Regarding solutions to mosquito resistance, in addition to educating customers about eliminating accessible water sources within their yards, “We’re beginning to look at alternate products or alternate ways of controlling, [such as] the use of insect growth regulators,” says Bell.
Although rotation in products is important, explains Salem, “it is a mitigation action, not a solution, and we need to think about larvicides.” Larvae are much less able to resist pesticides than adult mosquitoes, he says.